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For example, leg lunges work the muscles used for positioning yourself for perfect batting shots and gaining a fast sprint start. Bench pressing and dumbbell exercises work the muscles needed to hit big shots or bowl fast balls. However, strength more than bulk is usually the aim of cricket fitness programs. Using the rowing machine helps you develop good overall upper body strength for cricket.
Developing a circuit training program is an excellent way to improve cricket fitness. Exercises should focus on a combination of explosive power and stamina. You need no specialist equipment for these exercises. For example, in the DPH Sports Series book "Cricket," Ashok Kumar suggests including pull-ups, burpees, back raises, push-ups, abdominal curls and sprint runs as part of an overall fitness program for cricketers.
Aim to include eight exercises in your session. Perform each exercise with as many repetitions as possible for around 60 seconds. Flexible fielders can make the most acrobatic of catches. Flexibility also helps batsmen move their body into position quickly for a shot and even prevents bowlers from picking up too many injuries. Pilates and yoga are two useful ways to get limber for cricket, according to "Cricket for Dummies. Try sprint exercises with varied pacing to help you get used to the stop-start nature of cricket.
Video of the Day. Nine Fitness Components of Cricket. Warning Signs of Cracking in a Cricket Bat. Parts of a Cricket Bat. The Best Cricket Bats in the World. How to Hold a Cricket Bat. It is set on a cricket field centred on a metre yard pitch with two wickets each comprising a bail balanced on three stumps. For each phase of play, or innings , a batting side tries to score as many runs as possible after striking the cricket ball thrown at the wicket or delivery with the bat, while a bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player so they are "out".
Means of dismissal can include being bowled , when the ball directly hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, and by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground. When ten players have been dismissed, the innings end and the teams swap roles.
The side with the most runs generally wins, though there are exceptions where the game is drawn instead. The game is adjudicated by two umpires , aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches. They communicate with two off-field scorers one per team who record all the match's statistical information.
There are various formats ranging from Twenty20 , played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs i.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit , but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, which is a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a slightly raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core which is layered with tightly wound string. Historically , cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century.
It spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council ICC , which has over members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches. The sport is followed primarily in the Indian subcontinent , Australasia , the United Kingdom , Ireland , southern Africa and the West Indies , its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia , having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups , more than any other country, and having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that basically involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement; others are baseball , golf , hockey , tennis , squash , and table tennis.
It is generally believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a year-old coroner , John Derrick , who gave witness that: Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c.
One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word " cryce " or " cricc " meaning a crutch or staff. In Samuel Johnson 's Dictionary , he derived cricket from " cryce , Saxon, a stick".
Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs , the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects. The ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick ; the batsman defended a low, two-stump wicket ; and runs were called "notches" because the scorers recorded them by notching tally sticks.
In , the year Cotgrave's dictionary was published, ecclesiastical court records at Sidlesham in Sussex state that two parishioners, Bartholomew Wyatt and Richard Latter, failed to attend church on Easter Sunday because they were playing cricket. They were fined 12 d each and ordered to do penance.
Cricket remained a low-key local pursuit for much of the century. According to the social historian Derek Birley , there was a "great upsurge of sport after the Restoration " in The game underwent major development in the 18th century to become England's national sport. This caused a revolution in bat design because, to deal with the bouncing ball , it was necessary to introduce the modern straight bat in place of the old "hockey stick" shape.
The Hambledon Club was founded in the s and, for the next twenty years until the formation of Marylebone Cricket Club MCC and the opening of Lord's Old Ground in , Hambledon was both the game's greatest club and its focal point.
New Laws introduced in the latter part of the 18th century included the three stump wicket and leg before wicket lbw. The 19th century saw underarm bowling superseded by first roundarm and then overarm bowling.
Both developments were controversial. The most famous player of the 19th century was W. Grace , who started his long and influential career in It was especially during the career of Grace that the distinction between amateurs and professionals became blurred by the existence of players like him who were nominally amateur but, in terms of their financial gain, de facto professional.
Grace himself was said to have been paid more money for playing cricket than any professional. It is a nostalgic name prompted by the collective sense of loss resulting from the war, but the period did produce some great players and memorable matches, especially as organised competition at county and Test level developed.
Meanwhile, the British Empire had been instrumental in spreading the game overseas and by the middle of the 19th century it had become well established in Australia, the Caribbean, India, New Zealand, North America and South Africa. The first Australian team to travel overseas consisted of Aboriginal stockmen who toured England in In —77, an England team took part in what was retrospectively recognised as the first-ever Test match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.
The inter-war years were dominated by Australia's Don Bradman , statistically the greatest Test batsman of all time. Cricket entered a new era in when English counties introduced the limited overs variant.
In cricket, the rules of the game are specified in a code called The Laws of Cricket hereinafter called "the Laws" which has a global remit. There are 42 Laws always written with a capital "L". The earliest known version of the code was drafted in and, since , it has been owned and maintained by its custodian, the Marylebone Cricket Club MCC in London.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played on a cricket field see image, right between two teams of eleven players each. Each wicket is made of three wooden stumps topped by two bails.
As illustrated above, the pitch is marked at each end with four white painted lines: The three stumps are aligned centrally on the bowling crease, which is eight feet eight inches long.
The popping crease is drawn four feet in front of the bowling crease and parallel to it; although it is drawn as a twelve-foot line six feet either side of the wicket , it is in fact unlimited in length.
The return creases are drawn at right angles to the popping crease so that they intersect the ends of the bowling crease; each return crease is drawn as an eight-foot line, so that it extends four feet behind the bowling crease, but is also in fact unlimited in length. Before a match begins, the team captains who are also players toss a coin to decide which team will bat first and so take the first innings. A match with four scheduled innings is played over three to five days; a match with two scheduled innings is usually completed in a single day.
The main objective of each team is to score more runs than their opponents but, in some forms of cricket, it is also necessary to dismiss all of the opposition batsmen in their final innings in order to win the match, which would otherwise be drawn. If the team that bats last scores enough runs to win, it is said to have "won by n wickets", where n is the number of wickets left to fall.
For example, a team that passes its opponents' total having lost six wickets i. In a two-innings-a-side match, one team's combined first and second innings total may be less than the other side's first innings total.
The team with the greater score is then said to have "won by an innings and n runs", and does not need to bat again: If the team batting last is all out, and both sides have scored the same number of runs, then the match is a tie ; this result is quite rare in matches of two innings a side with only 62 happening in first-class matches from the earliest known instance in until January In the traditional form of the game, if the time allotted for the match expires before either side can win, then the game is declared a draw.
If the match has only a single innings per side, then a maximum number of overs applies to each innings. Such a match is called a "limited overs" or "one-day" match, and the side scoring more runs wins regardless of the number of wickets lost, so that a draw cannot occur. If this kind of match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula, known as the Duckworth-Lewis method after its developers, is often used to recalculate a new target score.
A one-day match can also be declared a "no-result" if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs have been bowled by either team, in circumstances that make normal resumption of play impossible; for example, wet weather. In all forms of cricket, the umpires can abandon the match if bad light or rain makes it impossible to continue. White balls are mainly used in limited overs cricket , especially in matches played at night, under floodlights left.
The essence of the sport is that a bowler delivers i. The bat is made of wood, usually salix alba white willow , and has the shape of a blade topped by a cylindrical handle. The ball is a hard leather-seamed spheroid , with a circumference of The ball has a "seam": The seam on a new ball is prominent, and helps the bowler propel it in a less predictable manner. During matches, the quality of the ball deteriorates to a point where it is no longer usable, and during the course of this deterioration its behaviour in flight will change and can influence the outcome of the match.
Players will therefore attempt to modify the ball's behaviour by modifying its physical properties. Polishing the ball and wetting it with sweat or saliva is legal, even when the polishing is deliberately done on one side only to increase the ball's swing through the air , but the acts of rubbing other substances into the ball, scratching the surface or picking at the seam is illegal ball tampering.
During normal play, thirteen players and two umpires are on the field. Two of the players are batsmen and the rest are all eleven members of the fielding team. The other nine players in the batting team are off the field in the pavilion. The image with overlay below shows what is happening when a ball is being bowled and which of the personnel are on or close to the pitch. One of the two umpires 1; wearing white hat is stationed behind the wicket 2 at the bowler's 4 end of the pitch.
The bowler 4 is bowling the ball 5 from his end of the pitch to the batsman 8 at the other end who is called the "striker". The other batsman 3 at the bowling end is called the "non-striker". The wicket-keeper 10 , who is a specialist, is positioned behind the striker's wicket 9 and behind him stands one of the fielders in a position called " first slip " While the bowler and the first slip are wearing conventional kit only, the two batsmen and the wicket-keeper are wearing protective gear including safety helmets, padded gloves and leg guards pads.
While the umpire 1 in shot stands at the bowler's end of the pitch, his colleague stands in the outfield, usually in or near the fielding position called " square leg ", so that he is in line with the popping crease 7 at the striker's end of the pitch.
The bowling crease not numbered is the one on which the wicket is located between the return creases The bowler 4 intends to hit the wicket 9 with the ball 5 or, at least, to prevent the striker 8 from scoring runs.
The striker 8 intends, by using his bat, to defend his wicket and, if possible, to hit the ball away from the pitch in order to score runs. Some players are skilled in both batting and bowling so are termed all-rounders.
Bowlers are also classified according to their style, generally as fast bowlers , medium pace seam bowlers or, like Muttiah Muralitharan pictured above, spinners. Batsmen are classified according to whether they are right-handed or left-handed.
Of the eleven fielders, three are in shot in the image above. The other eight are elsewhere on the field, their positions determined on a tactical basis by the captain or the bowler.
Fielders often change position between deliveries, again as directed by the captain or bowler. If a fielder is injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him, but the substitute cannot bowl or act as a captain.
The substitute leaves the field when the injured player is fit to return. The captain is often the most experienced player in the team, certainly the most tactically astute, and can possess any of the main skillsets as a batsman, a bowler or a wicket-keeper.
Within the Laws, the captain has certain responsibilities in terms of nominating his players to the umpires before the match and ensuring that his players conduct themselves "within the spirit and traditions of the game as well as within the Laws".
The wicket-keeper sometimes called simply the "keeper" is a specialist fielder subject to various rules within the Laws about his equipment and demeanour. He is the only member of the fielding side who can effect a stumping and is the only one permitted to wear gloves and external leg guards.
Generally, a team will include five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers, plus the wicket-keeper. Protective clothing includes pads designed to protect the knees and shins , batting gloves or wicket-keeper's gloves for the hands, a safety helmet for the head and a box inside the trousers to protect the crotch area.
The only fielders allowed to wear protective gear are those in positions very close to the batsman i. Subject to certain variations, on-field clothing generally includes a collared shirt with short or long sleeves; long trousers; woollen pullover if needed ; cricket cap for fielding or a safety helmet; and spiked shoes or boots to increase traction. The kit is traditionally all white and this remains the case in Test and first-class cricket but, in limited overs cricket, team colours are worn instead.
The innings ending with 's' in both singular and plural form is the term used for each phase of play during a match. Depending on the type of match being played, each team has either one or two innings. Sometimes all eleven members of the batting side take a turn to bat but, for various reasons, an innings can end before they have all done so.
The innings terminates if the batting team is "all out", a term defined by the Laws: An innings may end early while there are still two not out batsmen: The Laws state that, throughout an innings, "the ball shall be bowled from each end alternately in overs of 6 balls". At this point, another bowler is deployed at the other end, and the fielding side changes ends while the batsmen do not.
A bowler cannot bowl two successive overs, although a bowler can and usually does bowl alternate overs, from the same end, for several overs which are termed a "spell". The batsmen do not change ends at the end of the over, and so the one who was non-striker is now the striker and vice-versa. The umpires also change positions so that the one who was at "square leg" now stands behind the wicket at the non-striker's end and vice-versa.
The game on the field is regulated by the two umpires , one of whom stands behind the wicket at the bowler's end, the other in a position called "square leg" which is about 15—20 metres away from the batsman on strike and in line with the popping crease on which he is taking guard. The umpires have several responsibilities including adjudication on whether a ball has been correctly bowled i.
The umpires are authorised to interrupt or even abandon a match due to circumstances likely to endanger the players, such as a damp pitch or deterioration of the light. Off the field in televised matches, there is usually a third umpire who can make decisions on certain incidents with the aid of video evidence. The third umpire is mandatory under the playing conditions for Test and Limited Overs International matches played between two ICC full member countries.
These matches also have a match referee whose job is to ensure that play is within the Laws and the spirit of the game. The match details, including runs and dismissals, are recorded by two official scorers , one representing each team.
The scorers are directed by the hand signals of an umpire see image, right. For example, the umpire raises a forefinger to signal that the batsman is out has been dismissed ; he raises both arms above his head if the batsman has hit the ball for six runs. The scorers are required by the Laws to record all runs scored, wickets taken and overs bowled; in practice, they also note significant amounts of additional data relating to the game.
A match's statistics are summarised on a scorecard. Prior to the popularisation of scorecards, most scoring was done by men sitting on vantage points cuttings notches on tally sticks and runs were originally called notches. Pratt of Sevenoaks and soon came into general use. Besides observing the Laws, cricketers must respect the "Spirit of Cricket," which is the "Preamble to the Laws," first published in the code, and updated in , and now opens with this statement: The Preamble is a short statement that emphasises the "Positive behaviours that make cricket an exciting game that encourages leadership,friendship and teamwork.
The major responsibility for ensuring fair play is placed firmly on the captains, but extends to all players, umpires, teachers, coaches and parents involved. The umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair play. They are required under the Laws to intervene in case of dangerous or unfair play or in cases of unacceptable conduct by a player.
Previous versions of the Spirit identified actions that were deemed contrary for example, appealing knowing that the batsman is not out but all specifics are now covered in the Laws of Cricket, the relevant governing playing regulations and disciplinary codes, or left to the judgement of the umpires, captains, their clubs and governing bodies.
The terse expression of the Spirit of Cricket now avoids the diversity of cultural conventions that exist on the detail of sportsmanship — or its absence. Most bowlers are considered specialists in that they are selected for the team because of their skill as a bowler, although some are all-rounders and even specialist batsmen bowl occasionally.
The specialist bowlers are active multiple times during an innings, but may not bowl two overs consecutively. If the captain wants a bowler to "change ends", another bowler must temporarily fill in so that the change is not immediate. A bowler reaches his delivery stride by means of a "run-up" and an over is deemed to have begun when the bowler starts his run-up for the first delivery of that over, the ball then being "in play". This type of delivery can deceive a batsman into miscuing his shot, for example, so that the ball just touches the edge of the bat and can then be "caught behind" by the wicket-keeper or a slip fielder.
A spinner will often "buy his wicket" by "tossing one up" in a slower, steeper parabolic path to lure the batsman into making a poor shot. The batsman has to be very wary of such deliveries as they are often "flighted" or spun so that the ball will not behave quite as he expects and he could be "trapped" into getting himself out.
There are ten ways in which a batsman can be dismissed: The common forms of dismissal are bowled ,  caught ,  leg before wicket lbw ,  run out  and stumped. If the batsman is out, the umpire raises a forefinger and says "Out!
Batsmen take turns to bat via a batting order which is decided beforehand by the team captain and presented to the umpires, though the order remains flexible when the captain officially nominates the team. A skilled batsman can use a wide array of "shots" or "strokes" in both defensive and attacking mode. The idea is to hit the ball to best effect with the flat surface of the bat's blade. If the ball touches the side of the bat it is called an " edge ". The batsman does not have to play a shot and can allow the ball to go through to the wicketkeeper.
Equally, he does not have to attempt a run when he hits the ball with his bat. Batsmen do not always seek to hit the ball as hard as possible, and a good player can score runs just by making a deft stroke with a turn of the wrists or by simply "blocking" the ball but directing it away from fielders so that he has time to take a run. A wide variety of shots are played, the batsman's repertoire including strokes named according to the style of swing and the direction aimed: The batsman on strike i.
To register a run, both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either their bats or their bodies the batsmen carry their bats as they run.